I take great pride in the accomplishment of keeping politics away from my facebook. Sometimes I just need to vent and hope and hope and hope, some people… some of my friends, will sit down and learn for themselves all of contemporary US history and not what you are told (repeatedly) by revisionists, entertainers on cable networks and terrestrial radio… all talking heads for commercial interests.
Many of you take a blog, just like mine… right here… this thing you are reading and reference it as gospel and newsworthy. Taking rhetorical quotes as factual. Taking one element of truth and creating a fantasy manuscript. This blog, my blog… is not news. It is opinion. My opinions is biased. Biased towards peace, love, happiness, coexistence, mindfulness, compassion among others. As I experience personal growth, my list of biases gets longer.
What I am writing here is biased and I’ll be the first to admit it. I dislike wing-nuts, but I do not hate them. I dislike ultra liberals, but I do not hate them. I dislike ultra conservatives, but I do not hate them. I dislike those in the so-called middle and their fabricated libertarianism, which is an abbreviation for freeloader, but still, I do not hate them, nor do I want to see them die on the side of the road, as they would watch you because of their self preservation/interest. I dislike anyone who hates. I dislike hate. I dislike the fact that innate hatred overpowers rational thought, but I don’t hate those who don’t think for themselves. I love all of you. I love having conversation with all of you, primarily so I can identify some of your character flaws that make you such a sucker… You are nothing but a heard of sheep.
I just happen to love people who do not follow strict party platforms. I love people who take each issue and vote based on fact or with their heart. I love people who vote for the greater good and not for the good of themselves. I love people who take action and do not only yell on the soap box. I love people who leave their gospel at home and vote as our founding fathers would want you to… with the absence of religious influence.
You follow and quote a fiction writer who creates an unrealistic hate filled world where it’s every man for himself. Ayn Rand… a jew… someone who many would just hate (not my word) if they knew just this simple fact of her religion. If they really knew the philosophy they follow is one that they actually know nothing about. I am John Galt is not I am Ayn Rand… in as much as The Book of Mormon (as dictated by aliens from outer space) is the same as The King James Bible (as written from rumor and innuendo by storytellers, generations after any possible eyewitness has been long deceased and before any other written word was penned). Do not argue with me about any of these books a) unless you have read them b) have them on a bookshelf or electronic device for reference. Knowledge is power and unfortunately, most people have no power. Not over their free will, their free thoughts or their freedumb.
The following opinion is reposted here with permission of it’s author, “The Minister of Truth”. His name is Jesse LaGreca and you can follow him on twitter @JesseLaGreca. You can also follow him at http://www.dailykos.com/user/MinistryOfTruth.
PLEASE, sit back in your Sunday easy chair and read.
An Open Letter to the People Who Hate Obama More Than They Love America.
“I meet you all the time. You hate Obama. You hate gay people. You hate black people, immigrants, Muslims, labor unions, women who want the right to make choices concerning their bodies, you hate em all. You hate being called racist. You hate being called a bigot. Maybe if you talked about creating jobs more than you talk about why you hate gay people we wouldn’t call you bigots. Maybe if you talked about black people without automatically assuming they are on food stamps while demanding their birth certificates we wouldn’t call you racist. You hate socialism and social justice. You hate regulations and taxes and spending and the Government. You hate.
You like war. You like torture. You like Jesus. I don’t know how in the hell any of that is compatible, but no one ever accused you haters of being over-committed to ideological consistency. You like people who look like you or at least hate most of the things that you hate. You hate everything else.
Now, I know you profess to love our country and the founding fathers (unless you are reminded that they believed in the separation of church and state), but I need to remind you that America is NOT what Fox News says it is. America is a melting pot, it always has been. We are a multi-cultural amalgamation of all kinds of people, and yet you still demonize everyone who is not a rich, white, heterosexual christian male or his submissive and obedient wife.
You hate liberals, moderates, hell, anyone who disagrees with Conservative dogma as espoused by Fox News and Rush Limbaugh. You hate em.
Well, here are the facts, Jack. If you hate the Government then you are unqualified to manage it. If you hate gay people more than you love America than you should take your own advice and get the hell out. There are several countries that are openly hostile to gay people, but they are full of brown people and you don’t like them much either from what I understand. It looks like you are screwed, but that’s not what I am here to tell you.
Now that you have thrown everything and the kitchen sink at President Obama and it still hasn’t worked you are panicking. Obama’s approval ratings are still near 50% despite your best efforts to undermine the economy and America’s recovery at every step you can. You tried to hold the American economy hostage to force America into default on its’ debts, debts that YOU rang up under Bush, so you could blame it on Obama and it failed. You’ve used the filibuster more than any other Congress ever, going so far as to vote against providing health care access to 9/11 first responders. You remember 9/11, don’t you, it’s that thing you used to lie us into a war in Iraq, and then when Obama killed Bin Laden and ended the war in Iraq you told people that he hates America and wants the troops to fail. You monsters. You hate Obama with a passion, despite the fact that he is a tax cutting, deficit reducing war President who undermines civil rights and delivers corporate friendly watered down reforms that benefit special interests just like a Republican. You call him a Kenyan. You call him a socialist. You dance with your hatred singing it proudly in the rain like it was a 1950’s musical.
Frankly, you disgust me. Your hatred nauseates me. Your bigotry offends me. Your racism revolts me.
Dear haters, I am openly questioning your patriotism.
I think you hate gays, Obama, black people, poor people, all of us, women, atheists and agnostics, Latinos, Muslims, Liberals, all of us, I think you hate every one who isn’t exactly like you, and I think you hate us more than you love your country.
I think you hate gay soldiers more than you want America to win its wars.
I don’t even think you want America to win wars, you just want America to have wars, never ending wars and the war profiteering it generates. You love that kind of spending, you love spending on faith based initiatives and abstinence based sex education (George Carlin would have loved that one), you love spending on subsidies for profitable oil corporations, you spend like drunken sailors when you are in the White House, but if it is a Democrat then suddenly you cheer when America doesn’t get the Olympics because it might make the black President look bad. But oooh you love your country, you say, and you want it back. Well listen here skippy, it isn’t your country, you don’t own it, it is our country, and America is NOT the religiously extremist Foxbots who hate science, elitist professors and having a vibrant and meaningful sex life with someone we love if Rick Santorum doesn’t approve of it. Rick Santorum isn’t running for America’s fucking high school dance chaperone, he should probably just shut the hell up about sex, but he can’t because he has nothing else to run on.
Republicans can NOT win on the issues. They’ve got NOTHING. All they have is a divide and conquer class war that pits ignorant racist and bigoted people against the rest of us in a meaningless battle of wedge issues and the already proven to fail George W. Bush agenda again of tax cuts for the rich, deregulation, privatization and war profiteering and nothing else, so all they can do is blame black people, gays the government, anybody and everyone else for their own failings. The party of personal responsibility, my ass.
But they love multi-national corporations, just ask a gay hating and racist religious extremist if they think Corporations are people and they will gladly agree, but if you ask them if gay people are people they aren’t so sure.
Dear haters, you are the cruel, heartless misinformed assholes who would sell America out to Haliburton in a heartbeat, you would rather pay ZERO taxes than you would see a newly born baby get access to quality health care, you cheer when we discuss denying health care to young people with preventable diseases, and you boo when we discuss the First Ladies plan to cut back on childhood obesity. You are a cross to carry and a flag to wrap yourself in away from being the people who Sinclair Lewis warned us about, but I guarantee that if Fox News told you to dress that way you would, because you are the same blind, ignorant and closed minded dunces who drove this country into a civil war years ago because you are bound to the notion that some men are more equal than others. In short, the reason I proudly wear my union army hat is because of seditious sell outs like you who constantly fuck over working class Americans so a foreign entrepreneur like Rupert Murdoch can get a bigger tax break. If corporations are people, they are neither American patriots nor capable of love. Just like you.
So stop wearing your hate with pride. Stop celebrating your anti-science, anti-math ignorance. Stop using code words to mask your bigotry like “family values”, especially when you hate my family and when you stand on the same stage as a guy who has had three marriages or if you share a seat in the Senate with a guy who cheated on his wife with hookers while wearing diapers. You should be ashamed. I know that you are just doing this to motivate your misinformed hate cult base because if they actually knew that your ideas will make them poorer than they are now, they would never vote for you. You are doing your best to impoverish your countrymen so rich people can get bigger tax breaks and you can keep on delivering corporate welfare to the special interests who have bribed you, and I am disgusted by the way you gleefully parade your hatred with aplomb. I don’t think you do love America. At least, not as much as you hate everyone in America who isn’t exactly like you.
You should think about that, and maybe get some help.
And for the record, I do not hate you. I am embarrassed by you and nauseated by your cruel and thoughtless behavior and your all consuming greed, but I do not hate you. I forgive you and I hope you can change someday, but I don’t hate you. You have enough hate in you for the rest of us as it is”.
“First dentistry was painless.
Then bicycles were chainless,
Carriages were horseless,
And many laws enforceless.
Next cookery was fireless,
Telegraphy was wireless,
Cigars were nicotineless,
And coffee caffeineless.
Soon oranges were seedless,
The putting green was weedless,
The college boy was hatless,
The proper diet fatless.
New motor roads are dustless,
The latest steel is rustless,
Our tennis courts are sodless,
Our new religion–godless.”
If you are absolute and refuse to read, learn, understand, empathize, or even speak to who or what you demonize, how will you ever learn more about you… yourself, and cultivate deeper perception, awareness, comprehension into what you believe yourself? The things that have the most value when it comes to learning and understanding are exactly the things worth exploring and are worth reading, have the most value and, more accurately, those that challenge our convictions. Before you use a simple label for anything you question or take issue with, no matter what, you must be knowledgable enough to think for yourself and come to your own conclusion. Trust no one’s voice but your own, but before you judge others, make sure you have clean hands and use a purely factual challenge without any labels. It doesn’t matter if it is political, social, cultural or religious… the same mandate applies. [Marc Gilbert-Widmann January 29, 2014]
FACT CHECK: My first impression of this study is that while they recognize certain factors and results as anecdotal, I find ALL results and assumptions anecdotal because of the nature and uncontrollable variables of the study.
Scientific factors and explanations aside, this study is flawed. This study (by design) does not meet the standards of scientific testing. It is not double blind. The sampling is too small and uncontrolled. There is no represented control over the test subjects and the results are based on blood testing and surveying the participants.. “Since the scoring system in the present study only assessed relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets, we could not determine the absolute number of people who strictly followed any of the diets”.True compliance by test subjects is not known.
It is readily and repeatedly stated with different language that residual confounding is: “the observed associations between ‘Blood-Type’ diet scores and cardiometabolic disease risk factors could be due to residual confounding. However, residual confounding is not likely to explain why there would be no differential association among ABO genotypes.” I disagree. For your convenience to understand word phrases, I present a high levelsummary of residual confounding:
Residual confounding is the distortion that remains after controlling for confounding in the design and/or analysis of a study. There are three causes of residual confounding:
There were additional confounding factors that were not considered, or there was no attempt to adjust for them, because data on these factors was not collected. Control of confounding was not tight enough. For example, a study of the association between physical activity and age might control for confounding by age by a) restricting the study population to subject between the ages of 30-80 or b) matching subjects by age within 20 year categories. In either event there might be persistent differences in age among the groups being compared. Residual differences in confounding might also occur in a randomized clinical trial if the sample size was small. In a stratified analysis or in a regression analysis there could be residual confounding because data on confounding variable was not precise enough, e.g., age was simply classified as “young” or “old”.
There were many errors in the classification of subjects with respect to confounding variables.” (*Confounding and Effect Measure Modification, http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/… Boston University of Public Health). The sampling and length of the study is insignificant, There is not enough data (from this study) to make the declaration of “no differential association among ABO genotypes”. To state of (the blood type diet): “its recommendations do not specify any actual amount of consumption.” is materially incorrect and the statement is deceptive.
Dadamo and his book do not make a claim without scientific facts and complete references. This study does not reflect enough of the lectin factor… and a complete dismissal of Dadamo’s (among other) research with regard to specific lectin effect on aglutenation ofeach of the ABO blood types. It is stated: “In summary, the present study is the first to test the validity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet and we showed that adherence to certain diets is associated with some favorable cardiometabolic disease risk profiles.
This may explain anecdotal evidence supporting these diets, which are generally prudent diets that reflect healthy eating habits. However, the findings showed that the observed associations were independent of ABO blood group and, therefore, the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.” this statement corresponds to the preferred result of nutrigenomics who appear to focus less on the blood type and more on genetic factors. They say there is no corresponding conflict and the fact a grant from nutrigenomics helped pay for this “OPINION PAPER”.
Peer review is a mis-used phrase and implies real science where it is generally evaluation of meta-data and not real science.
MY INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY: I started the blood type diet, not to lose weight… my weight was already dropping from me via an eating disorder called… “I don’t feel like eating get that food away from me.” Or more commonly referred to as PTSD. I had to go about the task of finding a “DIETary” lifestyle that allowed me to eat without wanting to vomit or the smell of food that would would make me nauseated. I actually selected the blood-type diet because of the foods, which made food preparation easier with more raw foods and vegetables.
The first meal of the day is still difficult for me… and if I don’t have reminders, I will usually forget to eat all day long and around supper time say… humm… I haven’t eaten anything all day. As far as my health. At the start, I was in the middle of a cardiac intervention… pulmonary intervention… and anemia that followed me my entire life… no matter what treatment was tried. In 2009/2010, my carotid and femoral arteries had significant plaque. I had a leaky heart valve. I had an aFib issue and was told I would be on heart medication the rest of my life. I had peptic ulcers, edema of the transverse colon… I can’t remember what I have forgotten to list I was at the door of death and passed through it when as a man, I waited beyond the point of no return before I went to the ER… where I coded on Oct 17, 2009 when two of four heart chambers were crushed by fluid. I was conscious and watched the flatline that lasted about 15 seconds. This all came to a head after eating SUSHI… where I got a food borne bacteria… not e.coli, or any other type of food poisoning… In fact, after a two week hospitalization it was another three weeks before they were able to determine what had made me accumulate fluids. Three liters in the right lung (pleural effusion) and 550cc’s in my pericardia (pericardial effusion).
Draining the lung was simple enough and I was amused when the fluid was coming out of the tube inserted between a few ribs in my back… saying… “wow, all that is coming out of me?”… The pericardiocentesis (spelling) was a bit more complicated. I had no blood pressure when laying flat so they could not sedate me for the procedure to insert the chest tube to drain my pericardia… so… I had to man up and take the needle and tube going snap crackle pop through my chest wall and into the pericardia and wrapped around the heart with NO SEDATION… I suppose the training I received as a child getting dental care done all the way to exposed nerves with no Novocain (as a form of punishment) was helpful. It was NOT comfortable and was made tolerable by watching the ultra-sound guided tour of the needle and tube in my chest. Remarkably… the initial insertion of the needle was surprisingly painless, but for the look on the cardiologist’s face as he was trying to shove the needle into my chest and asking the ultra sound tech… “Is that the right ventricle?.
I was the walking dead getting five different antibiotics (IV) and was walking around with a fifty foot oxygen hose and a pole with seven infusers on it. They didn’t know what they were treating so they treated everything. At this time I normally had high blood pressure (but not during the intervention). Total cholesterol almost 300. Triglycerides over 400. Low RBC (<4.1), low WBC(<3.8), low hemoglobin(<12.9), low platelets (<135), high MCV (>106) causing macrocytosis (spelling). A wild range of glucose (fasting). Along came the choice of the blood-type diet.
I have a good relationship with my primary care physician and I went to him to tell him what I was going to do… He was a bit indifferent at first… but after a full year he finally said… “I’m not really sure exactly what you are doing, but it is working”… so keep doing it and don’t worry about being too skinny, because you are not… you do have low % of bdy fat but normal BMI”… Thank you Dr Dino Gonzalez.
All of my blood markers are NOW within normal range. A lifetime of anemia has been for all practical purposes completely resolved. There is no cure, but I am as close as it comes. Total cholesterol is now hovering between 140-150, Triglycerides 93. The only blood marker out of range at last blood testing (12/18/2k13) is creatinine (0.7). I no longer take blood pressure medication. I no longer take a statin and before that tricor. I no longer need iron supplementation, which never really helped the anemia but kept me out of crisis. I have not had to have a blood transfusion in three years. My blood pressure is 110/70 (+/-). My resting heart rate is 63 with no aFib or heart medication.
At the start of this in 2009 I weighed 205. After the hospitalization I was down to 170 and went back up to 185 after discharge when resuming (ab)normal carnivorous diet. Those blood markers have to be combined with the fact I now hover between 140-145lbs and have been there for two years now. % of body fat about 11%, BMI 22, bone density 66. I am released from cardiac care. The plaque that WAS in my carotid and femoral (among other places I’m sure) is COMPLETELY GONE. I have no aFib. I don’t have a six pack stomach… I have an eight pack stomach. My peptic ulcers are gone. The edema of my transverse colon (IBS) is gone. There are other resolved minor issues.
I am the picture of health… other than a pulmonary embolism in September which there as of yet is no explanation for. I do not fit the profile of sedentary lifestyle… so it may end up being a little chunk of the big “C” somewhere. Nothing invasive to explore can be done because i’m on rat poison… coumaden/warfarin, which took me from the blood type diet to the warfarin diet.
The latest lab results were after three months of NOT eating the vegetables, nuts, grains, seeds, legumes, seafood and all other foods high in vitamin K that resolved so many of my medical issues… including completely reversing cardiovascular disease but for that pesky right lung. I haven’t been an angel my whole life and the 2009 crisis uncovered, stage 1 emphysema, asthma, severely reduced lung capacity just n the right lung and a lot of scar tissue. I did not start the blood type diet to lose weight but rather gain health. I am the poster boy BUT… according to this “peer-reviewed” piece it doesn’t count because I am blood type A+. ANY QUESTIONS???
When the science you learned in school and the science you read in the newspaper don’t quite match up, the Meet Science series is here to help, providing quick run-downs of oft-referenced concepts, controversies, and tools that aren’t always well-explained by the media.]
ABO Genotype, ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
Jingzhou Wang, Bibiana García-Bailo, Daiva E. Nielsen, Ahmed El-Sohemy
Published: January 15, 2014
The ‘Blood-Type’ diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, the association between blood type-based dietary patterns and health outcomes has not been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ‘blood-type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and whether an individual’s ABO genotype modifies any associations.
Subjects (n = 1,455) were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study. Dietary intake was assessed using a one-month, 196-item food frequency questionnaire and a diet score was calculated to determine relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets. ABO blood group was determined by genotyping rs8176719 and rs8176746 in the ABO gene. ANCOVA, with age, sex, ethnicity, and energy intake as covariates, was used to compare cardiometabolic biomarkers across tertiles of each ‘Blood-Type’ diet score.
Adherence to the Type-A diet was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-AB diet was also associated with lower levels of these biomarkers (P<0.05), except for BMI and waist circumference. Adherence to the Type-O diet was associated with lower triglycerides (P<0.0001). Matching the ‘Blood-Type’ diets with the corresponding blood group did not change the effect size of any of these associations. No significant association was found for the Type-B diet.
Adherence to certain ‘Blood-Type’ diets is associated with favorable effects on some cardiometabolic risk factors, but these associations were independent of an individual’s ABO genotype, so the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.
Citation: Wang J, García-Bailo B, Nielsen DE, El-Sohemy A (2014) ABO Genotype, ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. PLoS ONE 9(1): e84749. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084749
Editor: Nick Ashton, The University of Manchester, United Kingdom
Received: August 15, 2013; Accepted: November 18, 2013; Published: January 15, 2014
Funding: This work was supported by grant 305352 from the Advanced Foods and Materials Network (to AE-S). JW is a recipient of an Ontario Graduate Scholarship. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing interests: AE-S holds shares in Nutrigenomix Inc., a genetic testing company for personalized nutrition. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.
A link between ABO blood group and diet was proposed by P.J. D’Adamo in his book “Eat Right For Your Type” published in 1996 . The ‘Blood-Type’ diets have gained widespread attention from the public with more than 7 million copies sold in over 60 languages, and making the New York Times bestseller list . D’Adamo postulates that the ABO blood group reveals the dietary habits of our ancestors and adherence to a diet specific to one’s blood group can improve health and decrease risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Based on the ‘Blood-Type’ diet theory, group O is considered the ancestral blood group in humans so their optimal diet should resemble the high animal protein diets typical of the hunter-gatherer era. In contrast, those with group A should thrive on a vegetarian diet as this blood group was believed to have evolved when humans settled down into agrarian societies. Following the same rationale, individuals with blood group B are considered to benefit from consumption of dairy products because this blood group was believed to originate in nomadic tribes. Finally, individuals with an AB blood group are believed to benefit from a diet that is intermediate to those proposed for group A and group B . The ‘Blood-Type’ diet also proposes that lectins, which are sugar-binding proteins found in certain foods , could cause agglutination if they are not compatible with an individual’s ABO blood group.
The ABO blood group is a classification of blood based on the structural variation of a certain carbohydrate antigenic substance on red blood cells. As one of the first recognizable genetic variants in humans, the ABO blood group has been studied extensively for its association with a variety of diseases including cancer , , , , malaria , and cholera . Regarding cardiometabolic diseases, individuals with blood group O were found to have lower levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF)  and had a reduced risk of venous thromboembolism compared to the other blood groups . Furthermore, group B individuals were found to have lower levels of E-selectin  and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared to group O . These findings demonstrate the potential importance of the ABO blood group in altering risk of disease, including cardiometabolic disease. However, little is known about whether the ABO blood group modifies an individual’s response to diet. A recent systematic review concluded that no evidence exists to support the proposed health benefits of ‘Blood-Type’ diets . Considering the lack of scientific evidence and the popularity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet, the objective of this study was to determine the association between ‘Blood-Type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and whether an individual’s ABO genotype modifies any associations.
Materials and Methods
The study protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board at the University of Toronto, and all subjects provided written informed consent.
Subjects (n = 1,639) were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health (TNH) Study, which is a cross-sectional examination of young adults aged 20 to 29 years. All subjects were recruited between October 2004 and December 2010 and completed a general health and lifestyle questionnaire, which included information on age, sex, ethnocultural group and other subject characteristics. Subjects who were likely under-reporters (less than 800 kcal per day) or over-reporters (more than 3,500 kcal per day for females or 4,500 kilocalories per day for males) of energy intake were excluded from the analyses. Subjects were also excluded if they had missing data for any of the biomarkers of interest or ABO genotype (n = 184). After exclusions, 1,455 subjects (993 women and 462 men) remained. Individuals were categorized into four major ethnocultural groups: White (n = 703), East Asians (n = 491), South Asians (n = 155), and others (n = 106).
Dietary adherence score assessment
Dietary intake was assessed by a one-month, Toronto-modified Willet 196-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as described previously . Briefly, each subject was given instructions on how to complete the FFQ by using visual aids of portion sizes to improve the measurement of self-reported food intake. Subject responses to the individual foods were converted into daily number of servings for each item. In order to quantify the adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets, four different diet scores were given to each subject regardless of his or her own blood group. Based on the food items listed in the ‘Blood-Type’ diets , subjects received one positive point for consuming one serving of each recommended food item and one negative point for consuming one serving of an item on the list of foods to avoid. Foods that are listed as “Neutral” were not included in the equation and do not contribute to the final score. The lists of recommended foods to eat or avoid for each ABO blood group are shown in the Appendix S1. Subjects were then grouped into tertiles based on their scores for each diet, with the top tertile representing those whose diet most closely resembles the corresponding ‘Blood-Type’ diet.
Cardiometabolic risk factor assessment
Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were determined as previously described . Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was calculated and physical activity was measured by questionnaire and expressed as metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week, as described previously , . Overnight 12-hour fasting blood samples were collected to measure serum biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease including triglycerides, free fatty acids, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, as described previously . The homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated by using the formula: (insulin * glucose)/22.5, and the homeostasis model of beta-cell function (HOMA-Beta) was calculated by using the formula: (20 * insulin)/(glucose – 3.5).
ABO genotype identification
The Sequenom MassArray® multiplex method was used to determine the blood group of study participants by genotyping two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176719Del>G; rs8176746A>C) in the ABO gene. The rs8176719 SNP indicates O-allele-specific 261delG while rs8176746 determines the galactose specificity of the encoded A/B transferases and thus the expression of A and B antigens on erythrocytes .
Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) Software program (version 9.2; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina). The a error was set at 0.05 and reported p-values are 2-sided. Variables that were not normally distributed were either loge or square root transformed prior to analysis, but the mean values and standard errors are displayed without transformation to facilitate interpretation. Subject characteristics were compared across ABO blood groups by using chi-square tests for categorical variables and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. ANCOVA was also used to compare means of biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk across tertiles of diet scores. Means compared between groups were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Tukey-Kramer procedure. Age, sex, ethnocultural group and energy intake were used as covariates in the ANCOVA analysis. Physical activity and smoking were also considered, but not included in the final model because they did not significantly (P<0.05) alter the results. The p-values for the associations between ‘Blood-Type’ diet and cardiometabolic biomarker profile remained significant (P<0.001) regardless of whether or not these two variables were included in the model. To determine whether matching the blood group with the corresponding diet was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic disease risk profile, we stratified the entire population into two groups; one with the matched blood group for the diet, and the other unmatched. We next examined the interaction between diet score and the matching status on levels of each cardiometabolic disease risk factor for each ‘Blood-Type’ diet by using the Tukey-Kramer correction. When a significant interaction effect was observed, we further compared the differences in the outcome between subjects with the matched blood group and the unmatched group in each of the tertiles of diet score.
Subject characteristics based on the ABO blood group are summarized in Table 1. After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnocultural group, subject characteristics were similar across ABO blood groups, except for insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-Beta (p<0.05). Although the overall association between blood group and total cholesterol was significant (p = 0.043), no difference was observed among specific ABO blood group.
Table 1. Subject Characteristics by ABO Genotypea.
Each ‘Blood-Type’ diet was first examined in the entire population without considering ABO blood groups. Figure 1A shows the total number of recommended items that were included in the FFQ for each diet. Briefly, the Type-A diet recommends high consumption of grains, fruits, and vegetables. The Type-B diet recommends high intakes of dairy products and moderate intakes of other food groups. The Type-AB diet is similar to the Type-B diet, but has more restrictions on specific food items. For example, only eggs and fish are recommended as sources of meat for group AB individuals (Appendix S1). The Type-O diet promotes high consumption of meats and avoidance of grain products. Figure 1B shows the diet score distribution. All four scores were normally distributed and did not require any transformation.
Figure 1. ‘Blood-Type’ diet (A). Diet score distribution for each ‘Blood-Type’ diet (B).
Characteristics of each ‘Blood-Type’ diet according to tertile of diet score are summarized inTable S1. Consistent with its recommendations, subjects in the highest tertile of the Type-A diet score consumed more fruits and vegetables and less meat (P<0.001). As for the two diets that recommend dairy consumption, high adherences to the Type-B and Type-AB diets were associated with higher intakes of dairy products (P<0.05). The dietary intake of those following the Type-O diet was also consistent with the diet’s recommendations where more meat and less grain products were consumed as individuals adhered more closely to the Type-O diet (P<0.001).
Mean levels of cardiometabolic disease risk factors based on the tertiles of each diet score are shown from Table 2 to Table5. All associations were adjusted for age, sex, ethnocultural group and energy intake. With increasing adherence to the Type-A diet, subjects, regardless of their ABO blood group, had lower BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-AB diet was associated with lower blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-O diet was associated with lower serum triglycerides (P<0.001). Although the overall association between the Type-B diet adherence and the level of HDL-cholesterol was significant (p = 0.04), no difference was observed between each tertile of the diet score.
Table 5. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by the Tertiles of Type-O Diet Scoresa.
Table 6, 7, 8 and 9 show the associations between diet scores and cardiometabolic disease risk factors according to the ABO blood group. Different ABO blood groups were equally distributed across the tertiles of each diet score. No significant interactions were observed between diet score and blood group for most of the risk factors, except for fasting glucose (P = 0.02), insulin (P = 0.02), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.01) in the Type-A diet (Table 6), and fasting glucose (P = 0.02) in the Type-AB diet (Table 8). When comparing the levels of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR between group A individuals and the other blood groups, a significant difference was observed in the second tertile, but not in the lowest or highest tertile of the Type-A diet score. No difference in fasting glucose was observed between the two groups in any tertile of the Type-A diet score. For fasting glucose in the Type-AB diet, no difference was observed between individuals with blood group AB and those with other blood groups in any tertile.
Table 9. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by Matching Type-O Diet Scores and ABO Genotypea.
Our findings show that adherence to certain ‘Blood-Type’ diets is associated with a favorable profile for certain cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults, but these associations were not related to an individual’s ABO blood group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association between the ‘Blood-Type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, and the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.
The association between the Type-A diet adherence and favorable cardiometabolic risk profile is not surprising considering this diet’s emphasis on high consumption of fruits and vegetables, and low consumption of meat products, which is similar to a dietary pattern that has been recommended by various health agencies because of its association with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases , , , , . Adherence to the Type-AB diet was also associated with favorable levels of several risk factors, despite its recommendation for certain dairy and meat products. Such benefits may be attributed to the list of certain food items considered healthy, which are recommended. For example, individuals with blood group AB are advised to avoid butter and to consume eggs and fish as their main animal-protein source. This is in contrast to the Type-B diet, which has fewer restrictions on many animal products as shown in the Appendix S1. These differences between the two diets may partially explain why a favorable cardiometabolic profile was associated with adherence to the Type-AB diet, but not for the Type-B diet. The Type-O diet is similar to low-carbohydrate diets , which may explain why adherence to this type of diet was associated with lower serum triglycerides (TG), as previously observed for other low-carbohydrate diets , . The reduction in TG may be caused by decreased TG production in the liver and/or increased cellular uptake of TG in response to low carbohydrate intake . By investigating the ‘Blood-Type’ diets in a population with different ABO genotypes, we found that adhering to the Type-A, Type-AB, or Type-O diets was associated with favorable effects on levels of certain biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk.
In order to examine whether individuals would benefit more from following their own ‘Blood-Type’ diet, the levels of cardiometabolic disease risk factors were compared between individuals with the matched blood group and the unmatched blood group while sharing similar diet adherence. However, no significant interaction effects were observed between diet adherence and blood group for most of the risk factors, suggesting that effects of following ‘Blood-Type’ diets is independent of an individual’s blood group. Although there were significant interaction effects for fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR for the Type-A diet, and fasting glucose for the Type-AB diet, those interactions may be due to chance, since we did not apply the most conservative Bonferroni post-hoc test to correct for multiple comparisons. Even if the interaction effects were not due to chance, those findings would not support the claim that matching the ‘Blood-Type’ diet with the corresponding blood group results in more favorable effects. In the case of the Type-A diet, the significant interaction effects were mainly driven by higher levels of insulin and HOMA-IR in the second tertile for those with blood group A. Moving from low adherence to high adherence, group A individuals did not demonstrate more favorable changes in these biomarkers. As for fasting glucose levels with the Type-AB diet, subjects with blood group AB had slightly higher glucose concentrations as they adhered to the diet more closely, while the other blood groups showed no differences. These findings, therefore, demonstrate that matching the diet with the corresponding blood group was not associated with any additional benefits and may even be associated with some adverse effects. For those in the unmatched blood group, we also tested whether each ‘Blood-Type’ diet was associated with any of the outcomes by matching to each of the other blood groups (data not shown); however, no significant interactions were observed. Therefore, the associations observed with the ‘Blood-Type’ diets were unrelated to any individual blood group.
Several previous studies have questioned the validity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diets. Based on phylogenetic analysis of human ABO alleles, blood group A has been suggested to be the ancestral human blood group , , rather than group O as postulated by D’Adamo . As for the claim that certain food items contain lectins incompatible with an individual’s ABO blood group, studies to date suggest no ABO-specific agglutination . The absence of scientific evidence was further supported by a recent systematic review , which found no study that directly investigated the effects of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet.
The present study has some limitations. The use of FFQs for dietary assessment could result in some measurement error and cannot give a precise estimate of the absolute intake of food items. However, a FFQ is considered a valid instrument for providing relative estimates of food intake in large populations . Although we adjusted for age, sex, ethnocultural group and energy intake and tested physical activity and smoking as potential covariates, the observed associations between ‘Blood-Type’ diet scores and cardiometabolic disease risk factors could be due to residual confounding. However, residual confounding is not likely to explain why there would be no differential association among ABO genotypes. The study population consisted of an unequal distribution of different ethnocultural groups, which have been shown to have a different prevalence of ABO blood groups  and might have different dietary patterns . However, the associations between diet adherence and levels of biomarkers were still evident after adjusting for ethnocultural group. Previous studies using diet scores have quantified relative adherence by deriving the score proportionally based on the recommended amount of consumption . However, this approach would not be appropriate for quantifying the adherence to the ‘Blood-Type’ diet because its recommendations do not specify any actual amount of consumption. By assigning points based on quantity of consumption for each food item, our scoring system is continuously scaled and normally distributed. Since the scoring system in the present study only assessed relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets, we could not determine the absolute number of people who strictly followed any of the diets. However, the observed results showed that even relatively high adherence to Type-A, Type-AB and Type-O diets were associated with favorable levels of cardiometabolic disease risk factors, albeit in an ABO-independent manner. These associations were consistent with previous studies examining similar dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors , , .
In summary, the present study is the first to test the validity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet and we showed that adherence to certain diets is associated with some favorable cardiometabolic disease risk profiles. This may explain anecdotal evidence supporting these diets, which are generally prudent diets that reflect healthy eating habits. However, the findings showed that the observed associations were independent of ABO blood group and, therefore, the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.
The food list was retrieved from the FFQ database of Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. The “+” signs indicate the foods that are recommended for the blood group. The “-” signs indicate the food to avoid for the blood group. The “/” signs indicate the food that are neutral.
Conceived and designed the experiments: AE-S. Performed the experiments: JW. Analyzed the data: JW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JW BG-B DN. Wrote the paper: JW. Assisted with the statistical analysis: BG-B. Assisted in data collection and study coordination: DN. Contributed to the manuscript revision for important intellectual content: BG-B DN.
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The Kaiser study comes shortly after several major California insurers announced that they would have to pay back $36 million to small businesses and their employees after charging them too much. Obamacare mandates that insurers on the individual market spend at least 80 percent of the premiums they charge on actual medical services, or reimburse the amount they overspent to their customers.
A Scary Fact About Your Food That Will Have You Running For The Farmers’ Market
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When it comes to laughter yoga, faking it ‘til you make it is just fine.
At least, that’s what Vishwa Prakash said at the start of the session that HuffPost’s health news editor Amanda Chan and I wandered into recently.
It was one of a few guidelines Prakash offered, as well as keeping our eyes locked on our fellow attendees, some 20 men and women dressed in street clothes and standing in a circle in his textile design company’s midtown Manhattan offices.