Enlightened Words of the Day 15FEB 2014 – Mature Person

Confucius 02

Confucius 02 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The mature person accepts his situation and doesn’t desire anything outside of it. If he finds himself rich and honored, he acts as a rich man should act; if he is poor, he acts as a poor man should act; if he is among barbarians, he acts as a barbarian should act. Life can present him with no situation in which he isn’t master of himself.

In high position, he doesn’t domineer over his subordinates; in a low position, he doesn’t fawn on his superiors. He makes sure that his own conduct is correct and seeks nothing from others; thus he is never disappointed. He has no complaints against heaven and no blame towards other people.

Therefore the mature person lives in perfect serenity, awaiting the decrees of heaven, while the unworthy person walks on the edge of danger, always trying to keep one step ahead of his fate.

Confucius said, “In the archer there is a resemblance to the mature person. When he misses the bull”s-eye, he turns and seeks the reason for his failure in himself.”

Tzu-Ssu (483-402 B.C.E.)

Quote of the Day 28 January 2014 – Splinter

When it comes to making a big change in your l...

When it comes to making a big change in your life you have to want it more than you fear it. (Photo credit: deeplifequotes)

“If peace comes from seeing the whole,
then misery stems from a loss of perspective.

We begin so aware and grateful. The sun somehow hangs there in the sky. The little bird sings. The miracle of life just happens. Then we stub our toe, and in that moment of pain, the whole world is reduced to our poor little toe. Now, for a day or two, it is difficult to walk. With every step, we are reminded of our poor little toe.

Our vigilance becomes: Which defines our day—the pinch we feel in walking on a bruised toe, or the miracle still happening?

It is the giving over to smallness that opens us to misery. In truth, we begin taking nothing for granted, grateful that we have enough to eat, that we are well enough to eat. But somehow, through the living of our days, our focus narrows like a camera that shutters down, cropping out the horizon, and one day we’re miffed at a diner because the eggs are runny or the hash isn’t seasoned just the way we like.

Cover of "The Book of Awakening: Having t...

Cover via Amazon

When we narrow our focus, the problem seems everything. We forget when we were lonely, dreaming of a partner. We forget first beholding the beauty of another. We forget the comfort of first being seen and held and heard. When our view shuts down, we’re up in the night annoyed by the way our lover pulls the covers or leaves the dishes in the sink without soaking them first.

In actuality, misery is a moment of suffering allowed to become everything. So, when feeling miserable, we must look wider than what hurts. When feeling a splinter, we must, while trying to remove it, remember there is a body that is not splinter, and a spirit that is not splinter, and a world that is not splinter.”
Mark NepoThe Book of Awakening: Having the Life You Want by Being Present to the Life You Have

Debunking Blood-Type Diet Debunkers – I’m The Proof

English: ABO Blood Group System

English: ABO Blood Group System (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

FACT CHECK: My first impression of this study is that while they recognize certain factors and results as anecdotal, I find ALL results and assumptions anecdotal because of the nature and uncontrollable variables of the study.

Scientific factors and explanations aside, this study is flawed. This study (by design) does not meet the standards of scientific testing. It is not double blind. The sampling is too small and uncontrolled. There is no represented control over the test subjects and the results are based on blood testing and surveying the participants.. “Since the scoring system in the present study only assessed relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets, we could not determine the absolute number of people who strictly followed any of the diets”.True compliance by test subjects is not known.

Diagram of ABO blood groups and the IgM antibo...

Diagram of ABO blood groups and the IgM antibodies present in each. Created by me on Adobe Illustrator on 8/25/06 and released into the public domain (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It is readily and repeatedly stated with different language that residual confounding is: “the observed associations between ‘Blood-Type’ diet scores and cardiometabolic disease risk factors could be due to residual confounding. However, residual confounding is not likely to explain why there would be no differential association among ABO genotypes.” I disagree. For your convenience to understand word phrases, I present a high levelsummary of residual confounding:

Diagram of ABO blood antigen system

Diagram of ABO blood antigen system (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“Residual Confounding

Residual confounding is the distortion that remains after controlling for confounding in the design and/or analysis of a study. There are three causes of residual confounding:

There were additional confounding factors that were not considered, or there was no attempt to adjust for them, because data on these factors was not collected.
Control of confounding was not tight enough. For example, a study of the association between physical activity and age might control for confounding by age by a) restricting the study population to subject between the ages of 30-80 or b) matching subjects by age within 20 year categories. In either event there might be persistent differences in age among the groups being compared. Residual differences in confounding might also occur in a randomized clinical trial if the sample size was small. In a stratified analysis or in a regression analysis there could be residual confounding because data on confounding variable was not precise enough, e.g., age was simply classified as “young” or “old”.

There were many errors in the classification of subjects with respect to confounding variables.” (*Confounding and Effect Measure Modification, http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/Boston University of Public Health). The sampling and length of the study is insignificant, There is not enough data (from this study) to make the declaration of “no differential association among ABO genotypes”. To state of (the blood type diet): “its recommendations do not specify any actual amount of consumption.” is materially incorrect and the statement is deceptive.

Dadamo and his book do not make a claim without scientific facts and complete references. This study does not reflect enough of the lectin factor… and a complete dismissal of Dadamo’s (among other) research with regard to specific lectin effect on aglutenation ofeach of the ABO blood types. It is stated: “In summary, the present study is the first to test the validity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet and we showed that adherence to certain diets is associated with some favorable cardiometabolic disease risk profiles.

This may explain anecdotal evidence supporting these diets, which are generally prudent diets that reflect healthy eating habits. However, the findings showed that the observed associations were independent of ABO blood group and, therefore, the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.” this statement corresponds to the preferred result of nutrigenomics who appear to focus less on the blood type and more on genetic factors. They say there is no corresponding conflict and the fact a grant from nutrigenomics helped pay for this “OPINION PAPER”.

Peer review is a mis-used phrase and implies real science where it is generally evaluation of meta-data and not real science.

MY INDIVIDUAL CASE STUDY: I started the blood type diet, not to lose weight… my weight was already dropping from me via an eating disorder called… “I don’t feel like eating get that food away from me.” Or more commonly referred to as PTSD. I had to go about the task of finding a “DIETary” lifestyle that allowed me to eat without wanting to vomit or the smell of food that would would make me nauseated. I actually selected the blood-type diet because of the foods, which made food preparation easier with more raw foods and vegetables.

The first meal of the day is still difficult for me… and if I don’t have reminders, I will usually forget to eat all day long and around supper time say… humm… I haven’t eaten anything all day. As far as my health. At the start, I was in the middle of a cardiac intervention… pulmonary intervention… and anemia that followed me my entire life… no matter what treatment was tried. In 2009/2010, my carotid and femoral arteries had significant plaque. I had a leaky heart valve. I had an aFib issue and was told I would be on heart medication the rest of my life. I had peptic ulcers, edema of the transverse colon… I can’t remember what I have forgotten to list I was at the door of death and passed through it when as a man, I waited beyond the point of no return before I went to the ER… where I coded on Oct 17, 2009 when two of four heart chambers were crushed by fluid. I was conscious and watched the flatline that lasted about 15 seconds. This all came to a head after eating SUSHI… where I got a food borne bacteria… not e.coli, or any other type of food poisoning… In fact, after a two week hospitalization it was another three weeks before they were able to determine what had made me accumulate fluids. Three liters in the right lung (pleural effusion) and 550cc’s in my pericardia (pericardial effusion).

Draining the lung was simple enough and I was amused when the fluid was coming out of the tube inserted between a few ribs in my back… saying… “wow, all that is coming out of me?”… The pericardiocentesis (spelling) was a bit more complicated. I had no blood pressure when laying flat so they could not sedate me for the procedure to insert the chest tube to drain my pericardia… so… I had to man up and take the needle and tube going snap crackle pop through my chest wall and into the pericardia and wrapped around the heart with NO SEDATION… I suppose the training I received as a child getting dental care done all the way to exposed nerves with no Novocain (as a form of punishment) was helpful. It was NOT comfortable and was made tolerable by watching the ultra-sound guided tour of the needle and tube in my chest. Remarkably… the initial insertion of the needle was surprisingly painless, but for the look on the cardiologist’s face as he was trying to shove the needle into my chest and asking the ultra sound tech… “Is that the right ventricle?.

I was the walking dead getting five different antibiotics (IV) and was walking around with a fifty foot oxygen hose and a pole with seven infusers on it. They didn’t know what they were treating so they treated everything. At this time I normally had high blood pressure (but not during the intervention). Total cholesterol almost 300. Triglycerides over 400. Low RBC (<4.1), low WBC(<3.8), low hemoglobin(<12.9), low platelets (<135), high MCV (>106) causing macrocytosis (spelling). A wild range of glucose (fasting). Along came the choice of the blood-type diet.

I have a good relationship with my primary care physician and I went to him to tell him what I was going to do… He was a bit indifferent at first… but after a full year he finally said… “I’m not really sure exactly what you are doing, but it is working”… so keep doing it and don’t worry about being too skinny, because you are not… you do have low % of bdy fat but normal BMI”… Thank you Dr Dino Gonzalez.

English: Donation pathway for ABO blood groups.

English: Donation pathway for ABO blood groups. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

All of my blood markers are NOW within normal range. A lifetime of anemia has been for all practical purposes completely resolved. There is no cure, but I am as close as it comes. Total cholesterol is now hovering between 140-150, Triglycerides 93. The only blood marker out of range at last blood testing (12/18/2k13) is creatinine (0.7). I no longer take blood pressure medication. I no longer take a statin and before that tricor. I no longer need iron supplementation, which never really helped the anemia but kept me out of crisis. I have not had to have a blood transfusion in three years. My blood pressure is 110/70 (+/-). My resting heart rate is 63 with no aFib or heart medication.

At the start of this in 2009 I weighed 205. After the hospitalization I was down to 170 and went back up to 185 after discharge when resuming (ab)normal carnivorous diet. Those blood markers have to be combined with the fact I now hover between 140-145lbs and have been there for two years now. % of body fat about 11%, BMI 22, bone density 66. I am released from cardiac care. The plaque that WAS in my carotid and femoral (among other places I’m sure) is COMPLETELY GONE. I have no aFib. I don’t have a six pack stomach… I have an eight pack stomach. My peptic ulcers are gone. The edema of my transverse colon (IBS) is gone. There are other resolved minor issues.

I am the picture of health… other than a pulmonary embolism in September which there as of yet is no explanation for. I do not fit the profile of sedentary lifestyle… so it may end up being a little chunk of the big “C” somewhere. Nothing invasive to explore can be done because i’m on rat poison… coumaden/warfarin, which took me from the blood type diet to the warfarin diet.

English: Codominant inheritance of the ABO blo...

English: Codominant inheritance of the ABO blood groups. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The latest lab results were after three months of NOT eating the vegetables, nuts, grains, seeds, legumes, seafood and all other foods high in vitamin K that resolved so many of my medical issues… including completely reversing cardiovascular disease but for that pesky right lung. I haven’t been an angel my whole life and the 2009 crisis uncovered, stage 1 emphysema, asthma, severely reduced lung capacity just n the right lung and a lot of scar tissue. I did not start the blood type diet to lose weight but rather gain health. I am the poster boy BUT… according to this “peer-reviewed” piece it doesn’t count because I am blood type A+. ANY QUESTIONS???

http://boingboing.net/2011/04/22/meet-science-what-is.html

When the science you learned in school and the science you read in the newspaper don’t quite match up, the Meet Science series is here to help, providing quick run-downs of oft-referenced concepts, controversies, and tools that aren’t always well-explained by the media.]

ABO Genotype, ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors

  • Jingzhou Wang, Bibiana García-Bailo, Daiva E. Nielsen, Ahmed El-Sohemy
  • Published: January 15, 2014

Abstract

The ‘Blood-Type’ diet advises individuals to eat according to their ABO blood group to improve their health and decrease risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. However, the association between blood type-based dietary patterns and health outcomes has not been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ‘blood-type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and whether an individual’s ABO genotype modifies any associations.

Methods

Subjects (n = 1,455) were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health study. Dietary intake was assessed using a one-month, 196-item food frequency questionnaire and a diet score was calculated to determine relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets. ABO blood group was determined by genotyping rs8176719 and rs8176746 in the ABO gene. ANCOVA, with age, sex, ethnicity, and energy intake as covariates, was used to compare cardiometabolic biomarkers across tertiles of each ‘Blood-Type’ diet score.

Results

Adherence to the Type-A diet was associated with lower BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-AB diet was also associated with lower levels of these biomarkers (P<0.05), except for BMI and waist circumference. Adherence to the Type-O diet was associated with lower triglycerides (P<0.0001). Matching the ‘Blood-Type’ diets with the corresponding blood group did not change the effect size of any of these associations. No significant association was found for the Type-B diet.

Conclusions

Adherence to certain ‘Blood-Type’ diets is associated with favorable effects on some cardiometabolic risk factors, but these associations were independent of an individual’s ABO genotype, so the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.

Figures

Citation: Wang J, García-Bailo B, Nielsen DE, El-Sohemy A (2014) ABO Genotype, ‘Blood-Type’ Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. PLoS ONE 9(1): e84749. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084749

Editor: Nick Ashton, The University of Manchester, United Kingdom

Received: August 15, 2013; Accepted: November 18, 2013; Published: January 15, 2014

Copyright: © 2014 Wang et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: This work was supported by grant 305352 from the Advanced Foods and Materials Network (to AE-S). JW is a recipient of an Ontario Graduate Scholarship. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests: AE-S holds shares in Nutrigenomix Inc., a genetic testing company for personalized nutrition. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to all the PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

Introduction

A link between ABO blood group and diet was proposed by P.J. D’Adamo in his book “Eat Right For Your Type” published in 1996 [1]. The ‘Blood-Type’ diets have gained widespread attention from the public with more than 7 million copies sold in over 60 languages, and making the New York Times bestseller list [2]. D’Adamo postulates that the ABO blood group reveals the dietary habits of our ancestors and adherence to a diet specific to one’s blood group can improve health and decrease risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Based on the ‘Blood-Type’ diet theory, group O is considered the ancestral blood group in humans so their optimal diet should resemble the high animal protein diets typical of the hunter-gatherer era. In contrast, those with group A should thrive on a vegetarian diet as this blood group was believed to have evolved when humans settled down into agrarian societies. Following the same rationale, individuals with blood group B are considered to benefit from consumption of dairy products because this blood group was believed to originate in nomadic tribes. Finally, individuals with an AB blood group are believed to benefit from a diet that is intermediate to those proposed for group A and group B [1]. The ‘Blood-Type’ diet also proposes that lectins, which are sugar-binding proteins found in certain foods [3], could cause agglutination if they are not compatible with an individual’s ABO blood group.

The ABO blood group is a classification of blood based on the structural variation of a certain carbohydrate antigenic substance on red blood cells. As one of the first recognizable genetic variants in humans, the ABO blood group has been studied extensively for its association with a variety of diseases including cancer [4][5][6][7], malaria [8], and cholera [9]. Regarding cardiometabolic diseases, individuals with blood group O were found to have lower levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF) [10] and had a reduced risk of venous thromboembolism compared to the other blood groups [11]. Furthermore, group B individuals were found to have lower levels of E-selectin [12] and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes compared to group O [13]. These findings demonstrate the potential importance of the ABO blood group in altering risk of disease, including cardiometabolic disease. However, little is known about whether the ABO blood group modifies an individual’s response to diet. A recent systematic review concluded that no evidence exists to support the proposed health benefits of ‘Blood-Type’ diets [14]. Considering the lack of scientific evidence and the popularity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet, the objective of this study was to determine the association between ‘Blood-Type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and whether an individual’s ABO genotype modifies any associations.

Materials and Methods

Ethics statement

The study protocol was approved by the Research Ethics Board at the University of Toronto, and all subjects provided written informed consent.

Participants

Subjects (n = 1,639) were participants of the Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health (TNH) Study, which is a cross-sectional examination of young adults aged 20 to 29 years. All subjects were recruited between October 2004 and December 2010 and completed a general health and lifestyle questionnaire, which included information on age, sex, ethnocultural group and other subject characteristics. Subjects who were likely under-reporters (less than 800 kcal per day) or over-reporters (more than 3,500 kcal per day for females or 4,500 kilocalories per day for males) of energy intake were excluded from the analyses. Subjects were also excluded if they had missing data for any of the biomarkers of interest or ABO genotype (n = 184). After exclusions, 1,455 subjects (993 women and 462 men) remained. Individuals were categorized into four major ethnocultural groups: White (n = 703), East Asians (n = 491), South Asians (n = 155), and others (n = 106).

Dietary adherence score assessment

Dietary intake was assessed by a one-month, Toronto-modified Willet 196-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as described previously [15]. Briefly, each subject was given instructions on how to complete the FFQ by using visual aids of portion sizes to improve the measurement of self-reported food intake. Subject responses to the individual foods were converted into daily number of servings for each item. In order to quantify the adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets, four different diet scores were given to each subject regardless of his or her own blood group. Based on the food items listed in the ‘Blood-Type’ diets [1], subjects received one positive point for consuming one serving of each recommended food item and one negative point for consuming one serving of an item on the list of foods to avoid. Foods that are listed as “Neutral” were not included in the equation and do not contribute to the final score. The lists of recommended foods to eat or avoid for each ABO blood group are shown in the Appendix S1. Subjects were then grouped into tertiles based on their scores for each diet, with the top tertile representing those whose diet most closely resembles the corresponding ‘Blood-Type’ diet.

Cardiometabolic risk factor assessment

Anthropometric measurements including height, weight, blood pressure and waist circumference were determined as previously described [16]. Body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) was calculated and physical activity was measured by questionnaire and expressed as metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week, as described previously [16][17]. Overnight 12-hour fasting blood samples were collected to measure serum biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease including triglycerides, free fatty acids, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, and total-, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, as described previously [15]. The homeostasis model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated by using the formula: (insulin * glucose)/22.5, and the homeostasis model of beta-cell function (HOMA-Beta) was calculated by using the formula: (20 * insulin)/(glucose – 3.5).

ABO genotype identification

The Sequenom MassArray® multiplex method was used to determine the blood group of study participants by genotyping two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs8176719Del>G; rs8176746A>C) in the ABO gene. The rs8176719 SNP indicates O-allele-specific 261delG while rs8176746 determines the galactose specificity of the encoded A/B transferases and thus the expression of A and B antigens on erythrocytes [18].

Statistical analyses

Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) Software program (version 9.2; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina). The a error was set at 0.05 and reported p-values are 2-sided. Variables that were not normally distributed were either loge or square root transformed prior to analysis, but the mean values and standard errors are displayed without transformation to facilitate interpretation. Subject characteristics were compared across ABO blood groups by using chi-square tests for categorical variables and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) for continuous variables. ANCOVA was also used to compare means of biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk across tertiles of diet scores. Means compared between groups were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Tukey-Kramer procedure. Age, sex, ethnocultural group and energy intake were used as covariates in the ANCOVA analysis. Physical activity and smoking were also considered, but not included in the final model because they did not significantly (P<0.05) alter the results. The p-values for the associations between ‘Blood-Type’ diet and cardiometabolic biomarker profile remained significant (P<0.001) regardless of whether or not these two variables were included in the model. To determine whether matching the blood group with the corresponding diet was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic disease risk profile, we stratified the entire population into two groups; one with the matched blood group for the diet, and the other unmatched. We next examined the interaction between diet score and the matching status on levels of each cardiometabolic disease risk factor for each ‘Blood-Type’ diet by using the Tukey-Kramer correction. When a significant interaction effect was observed, we further compared the differences in the outcome between subjects with the matched blood group and the unmatched group in each of the tertiles of diet score.

Results

Subject characteristics based on the ABO blood group are summarized in Table 1. After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnocultural group, subject characteristics were similar across ABO blood groups, except for insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-Beta (p<0.05). Although the overall association between blood group and total cholesterol was significant (p = 0.043), no difference was observed among specific ABO blood group.

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Table 1. Subject Characteristics by ABO Genotypea.

Each ‘Blood-Type’ diet was first examined in the entire population without considering ABO blood groups. Figure 1A shows the total number of recommended items that were included in the FFQ for each diet. Briefly, the Type-A diet recommends high consumption of grains, fruits, and vegetables. The Type-B diet recommends high intakes of dairy products and moderate intakes of other food groups. The Type-AB diet is similar to the Type-B diet, but has more restrictions on specific food items. For example, only eggs and fish are recommended as sources of meat for group AB individuals (Appendix S1). The Type-O diet promotes high consumption of meats and avoidance of grain products. Figure 1B shows the diet score distribution. All four scores were normally distributed and did not require any transformation.

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Figure 1. ‘Blood-Type’ diet (A). Diet score distribution for each ‘Blood-Type’ diet (B).

Characteristics of each ‘Blood-Type’ diet according to tertile of diet score are summarized inTable S1. Consistent with its recommendations, subjects in the highest tertile of the Type-A diet score consumed more fruits and vegetables and less meat (P<0.001). As for the two diets that recommend dairy consumption, high adherences to the Type-B and Type-AB diets were associated with higher intakes of dairy products (P<0.05). The dietary intake of those following the Type-O diet was also consistent with the diet’s recommendations where more meat and less grain products were consumed as individuals adhered more closely to the Type-O diet (P<0.001).

Mean levels of cardiometabolic disease risk factors based on the tertiles of each diet score are shown from Table 2 to Table 5. All associations were adjusted for age, sex, ethnocultural group and energy intake. With increasing adherence to the Type-A diet, subjects, regardless of their ABO blood group, had lower BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-AB diet was associated with lower blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-Beta (P<0.05). Adherence to the Type-O diet was associated with lower serum triglycerides (P<0.001). Although the overall association between the Type-B diet adherence and the level of HDL-cholesterol was significant (p = 0.04), no difference was observed between each tertile of the diet score.

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Table 2. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by the Tertiles of Type-A Diet Scorea.

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084749.t002

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Table 3. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by the Tertiles of Type-B Diet Scorea.

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084749.t003

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Table 4. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by the Tertiles of Type-AB Diet Scoresa.

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084749.t004

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Table 5. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by the Tertiles of Type-O Diet Scoresa.

doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084749.t005

Table 678 and 9 show the associations between diet scores and cardiometabolic disease risk factors according to the ABO blood group. Different ABO blood groups were equally distributed across the tertiles of each diet score. No significant interactions were observed between diet score and blood group for most of the risk factors, except for fasting glucose (P = 0.02), insulin (P = 0.02), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.01) in the Type-A diet (Table 6), and fasting glucose (P = 0.02) in the Type-AB diet (Table 8). When comparing the levels of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR between group A individuals and the other blood groups, a significant difference was observed in the second tertile, but not in the lowest or highest tertile of the Type-A diet score. No difference in fasting glucose was observed between the two groups in any tertile of the Type-A diet score. For fasting glucose in the Type-AB diet, no difference was observed between individuals with blood group AB and those with other blood groups in any tertile.

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Table 6. Cardiometabolic Disease Risk Factors by Matching Type-A Diet Scores and ABO Genotypea.

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Table 7. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by Matching Type-B Diet Scores and ABO Genotypea.

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Table 8. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by Matching Type-AB Diet Scores and ABO Genotypea.

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Table 9. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors by Matching Type-O Diet Scores and ABO Genotypea.

Discussion

Our findings show that adherence to certain ‘Blood-Type’ diets is associated with a favorable profile for certain cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults, but these associations were not related to an individual’s ABO blood group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the association between the ‘Blood-Type’ diets and biomarkers of cardiometabolic health, and the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.

The association between the Type-A diet adherence and favorable cardiometabolic risk profile is not surprising considering this diet’s emphasis on high consumption of fruits and vegetables, and low consumption of meat products, which is similar to a dietary pattern that has been recommended by various health agencies because of its association with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases [19][20][21][22][23]. Adherence to the Type-AB diet was also associated with favorable levels of several risk factors, despite its recommendation for certain dairy and meat products. Such benefits may be attributed to the list of certain food items considered healthy, which are recommended. For example, individuals with blood group AB are advised to avoid butter and to consume eggs and fish as their main animal-protein source. This is in contrast to the Type-B diet, which has fewer restrictions on many animal products as shown in the Appendix S1. These differences between the two diets may partially explain why a favorable cardiometabolic profile was associated with adherence to the Type-AB diet, but not for the Type-B diet. The Type-O diet is similar to low-carbohydrate diets [24], which may explain why adherence to this type of diet was associated with lower serum triglycerides (TG), as previously observed for other low-carbohydrate diets [25][26]. The reduction in TG may be caused by decreased TG production in the liver and/or increased cellular uptake of TG in response to low carbohydrate intake [27]. By investigating the ‘Blood-Type’ diets in a population with different ABO genotypes, we found that adhering to the Type-A, Type-AB, or Type-O diets was associated with favorable effects on levels of certain biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk.

In order to examine whether individuals would benefit more from following their own ‘Blood-Type’ diet, the levels of cardiometabolic disease risk factors were compared between individuals with the matched blood group and the unmatched blood group while sharing similar diet adherence. However, no significant interaction effects were observed between diet adherence and blood group for most of the risk factors, suggesting that effects of following ‘Blood-Type’ diets is independent of an individual’s blood group. Although there were significant interaction effects for fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR for the Type-A diet, and fasting glucose for the Type-AB diet, those interactions may be due to chance, since we did not apply the most conservative Bonferroni post-hoc test to correct for multiple comparisons. Even if the interaction effects were not due to chance, those findings would not support the claim that matching the ‘Blood-Type’ diet with the corresponding blood group results in more favorable effects. In the case of the Type-A diet, the significant interaction effects were mainly driven by higher levels of insulin and HOMA-IR in the second tertile for those with blood group A. Moving from low adherence to high adherence, group A individuals did not demonstrate more favorable changes in these biomarkers. As for fasting glucose levels with the Type-AB diet, subjects with blood group AB had slightly higher glucose concentrations as they adhered to the diet more closely, while the other blood groups showed no differences. These findings, therefore, demonstrate that matching the diet with the corresponding blood group was not associated with any additional benefits and may even be associated with some adverse effects. For those in the unmatched blood group, we also tested whether each ‘Blood-Type’ diet was associated with any of the outcomes by matching to each of the other blood groups (data not shown); however, no significant interactions were observed. Therefore, the associations observed with the ‘Blood-Type’ diets were unrelated to any individual blood group.

Several previous studies have questioned the validity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diets. Based on phylogenetic analysis of human ABO alleles, blood group A has been suggested to be the ancestral human blood group [28][29], rather than group O as postulated by D’Adamo [1]. As for the claim that certain food items contain lectins incompatible with an individual’s ABO blood group, studies to date suggest no ABO-specific agglutination [30]. The absence of scientific evidence was further supported by a recent systematic review [14], which found no study that directly investigated the effects of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet.

The present study has some limitations. The use of FFQs for dietary assessment could result in some measurement error and cannot give a precise estimate of the absolute intake of food items. However, a FFQ is considered a valid instrument for providing relative estimates of food intake in large populations [31]. Although we adjusted for age, sex, ethnocultural group and energy intake and tested physical activity and smoking as potential covariates, the observed associations between ‘Blood-Type’ diet scores and cardiometabolic disease risk factors could be due to residual confounding. However, residual confounding is not likely to explain why there would be no differential association among ABO genotypes. The study population consisted of an unequal distribution of different ethnocultural groups, which have been shown to have a different prevalence of ABO blood groups [32] and might have different dietary patterns [16]. However, the associations between diet adherence and levels of biomarkers were still evident after adjusting for ethnocultural group. Previous studies using diet scores have quantified relative adherence by deriving the score proportionally based on the recommended amount of consumption [33]. However, this approach would not be appropriate for quantifying the adherence to the ‘Blood-Type’ diet because its recommendations do not specify any actual amount of consumption. By assigning points based on quantity of consumption for each food item, our scoring system is continuously scaled and normally distributed. Since the scoring system in the present study only assessed relative adherence to each of the four ‘Blood-Type’ diets, we could not determine the absolute number of people who strictly followed any of the diets. However, the observed results showed that even relatively high adherence to Type-A, Type-AB and Type-O diets were associated with favorable levels of cardiometabolic disease risk factors, albeit in an ABO-independent manner. These associations were consistent with previous studies examining similar dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk factors [23][24][34].

In summary, the present study is the first to test the validity of the ‘Blood-Type’ diet and we showed that adherence to certain diets is associated with some favorable cardiometabolic disease risk profiles. This may explain anecdotal evidence supporting these diets, which are generally prudent diets that reflect healthy eating habits. However, the findings showed that the observed associations were independent of ABO blood group and, therefore, the findings do not support the ‘Blood-Type’ diet hypothesis.

Supporting Information

Table_S1.docx

The ‘Blood-Type’ Diet Characteristics.

Table S1.

The ‘Blood-Type’ Diet Characteristics.

Appendix S1.

The food list was retrieved from the FFQ database of Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. The “+” signs indicate the foods that are recommended for the blood group. The “-” signs indicate the food to avoid for the blood group. The “/” signs indicate the food that are neutral.

Author Contributions

Conceived and designed the experiments: AE-S. Performed the experiments: JW. Analyzed the data: JW. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: JW BG-B DN. Wrote the paper: JW. Assisted with the statistical analysis: BG-B. Assisted in data collection and study coordination: DN. Contributed to the manuscript revision for important intellectual content: BG-B DN.

References

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  34. 34.Patterson E, Larsson SC, Wolk A, Akesson A (2013) Association between dairy food consumption and risk of myocardial infarction in women differs by type of dairy food. J Nutr 143: 74–79. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.166330

Quote of the Day 17 January 2014 – Perception

Cover of "Hitch-22: A Memoir"

Cover of Hitch-22: A Memoir

“Even if it were possible to cast my horoscope in this one life, and to make an accurate prediction about my future, it would not be possible to ‘show’ it to me because as soon as I saw it my future would change by definition. This is why Werner Heisenberg‘s adaptation of the Hays Office—the so-called principle of uncertainty whereby the act of measuring something has the effect of altering the measurement—is of such importance. In my case the difference is often made by publicity. For example, and to boast of one of my few virtues, I used to derive pleasure from giving my time to bright young people who showed promise as writers and who asked for my help. Then some profile of me quoted someone who disclosed that I liked to do this. Then it became something widely said of me, whereupon it became almost impossible for me to go on doing it, because I started to receive far more requests than I could respond to, let alone satisfy. Perception modifies reality: when I abandoned the smoking habit of more than three decades I was given a supposedly helpful pill called Wellbutrin. But as soon as I discovered that this was the brand name for an antidepressant, I tossed the bottle away. There may be successful methods for overcoming the blues but for me they cannot include a capsule that says: ‘Fool yourself into happiness, while pretending not to do so.’ I should actually want my mind to be strong enough to circumvent such a trick.”
Christopher HitchensHitch-22: A Memoir

Quote of the Day 13 January 2014 – Relationships

Cover of "The Happiness Hypothesis: Findi...

Cover via Amazon

“Happiness is not something that you can find, acquire, or achieve directly. You have to get the conditions right and then wait. Some of those conditions are within you, such as coherence among the parts and levels of your personality. Other conditions require relationships to things beyond you: Just as plants need sun, water, and good soil to thrive, people need love, work, and a connection to something larger. It is worth striving to get the right relationships between yourself and others, between yourself and your work, and between yourself and something larger thank yourself. If you get these relationships right, a sense of purpose and meaning will emerge.”
Jonathan Haidt, The Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom

Marc’s Words of Wisdom 07Jan 2014 – Optimism

Ridin boots via vladtepish

Ridin boots via vladtepish

I never considered myself an optimist. I thought I was a realist through and through, always making sure I understood that, for every good thing that happens, something bad must happen. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

I was often mistaken for a pessimist not because of my looking for something good to come from bad but from my looking for something bad to come from good. Literally turning my head and waiting for it. Every person I saw was a threat. I had this angry aura about me. Most often kept inside of me festering.

My realism has came in quite handy as a technical writer with vision for scoping and compiling requirements for both logical and physical projects… Specifically in forming use-case-scenarios and quality assurance testing.

I’ve never believed my future would be better than my past, because that was what I learned and was told. As a matter of fact, I never really believed I would have a future or that I wanted one at all. There are some dark ages that see light now, where passively suicidal behavior and risk taking that were a big part of my lifestyle are gone, but for risk. The worst risk is the one not taken.

Time changes attitudes… it heals wounds a little too… at least it has for me. I’m no longer angry person in general… but I can still get angry, however, I prefer kindness and understanding. Anger sucks energy from your soul.

Time that I never thought I would have has turned me into an optimist. I believe in optimism. My present and my future are and will be better than my past. I am completely responsible for this change in thinking with the help of PTSD therapy. There is a small hand full of people… a small circle of family who also have had a role in my healing and change. I could not or would not have accomplished this shift in thought on my own.

My family is my reason for living. My reason for wanting to live and wake up again tomorrow. To change a little more for the better. To enjoy the happiness and love that I feel surrounding me. I have what I feel are compelling reasons to live that escaped me until recently… hugs. Hug therapy. Unintended consequences of wanting to live. I shared a hug last night, promptly fell asleep and awakened the happy man I realized I am and have been.

My name is Marc and I am an optimist. I believe my present is brighter than my past. I believe my future will be brighter because of the people in my present and future.

My life has meaning… It’s good to be alive.

2013: The Year in Review is My 2014 New Year’s Resolution

I’m often asked to write in PTSD therapy. There are times I volunteer certain things because writing other than technical pieces has helped me lately. I told Patrick in therapy on Monday that I was going to write a “Year in Review” from the perspective of my life and personal growth I experienced in 2013… so as usual, I’m just sitting here staring at a blinking cursor. The year in review sounds so finite… as though what I am reviewing were ending at 11:59:59pm on New Year’s Eve… It all adds up to a fixed number and it doesn’t change.
I’m not delivering on a year in review… it’s just a gregorian thing… and the fact it’s 2014 doesn’t mean I’m going to write about “things” that would be assumed finished at the end of 2013. Por el contrario, mi pueblo, it’s just another day in a life that has a lot of meaning.
What’s the compromise in all this? The heading of course… “2013: The Year in Review is My 2014 New Year’s Resolution”. I choose to mash them together and stay the course I’m on.
Web definitions
  1. A New Year’s resolution is a promise that you make to yourself to start doing something good or stop doing something bad on the first day of the year.
English: Two New Year's Resolutions postcards

English: Two New Year’s Resolutions postcards (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I have a problem with this definition. I need to continue doing what I’m doing… not change it and I don’t know that I am doing something, anything bad that I would have to resolve to stop. The implication is that you start or stop doing something, generally something that is unattainable. 40% of Americans indulge in setting these fixed resolves and most fail… miserably.

The fact is, a peer reviewed study has shown that 88% of people who make new year’s resolutions fail, while 56% of the same people feel their resolution is attainable. 22% of men and 10% of women are more often successful when instead of a resolution, they set attainable goals for themselves with milestones. Not necessarily complicated ones… but rather baby steps, such as saving a dollar a week instead of just saying, I want to save money in 2014, or losing weight or gaining (in my case) a pound of weight a week instead of a simple I want to gain weight. Both men and women have been shown to have better success when their resolution or goal is made public or shared with friends and family, which makes you accountable to them.

Talking to friends, family or whoever you have in your life that you trust. Telling them about your goals will make those goals real and almost tangible, while at the same time getting support and encouragement from that same group of friends and family to perhaps help you succeed.

In order to manufacture a new year’s resolution for yourself, you have to look at and criticize yourself, find your flaws or what is missing or what you have too much of, which in and of itself can be unhealthy. You have to look at yourself and think what’s wrong with yourself… then find what’s wrong, indulge in self-loathing, low esteem, depression, unhappiness, impatience and I think the biggest is a bad self-image. All of these create failure because the resolve may be unattainable since they are just words and not actions. This creates more self-loathing, low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, impatience, unhappiness and the distortion of your image in a mirror.

Resolutions such as these will, more often than not, result in failure: I want to lose weight, I want to get healthy, I want to eat healthy, I want to exercise more, I want to break bad habits, I want to quit smoking, I want to stop drinking, I want to stop wasting money, I want to save for retirement, I want to learn how to and maintain a budget.

New year's resolutions

New year’s resolutions (Photo credit: malglam)

Case in point… My friend, brother… let’s, for the sake of this disclosure call him, Mr Carverhall… just a few minutes ago he revealed his new year’s resolution to me (via facetime)… I had to ask.. but I got it out of him. He said… “I want to be wealthy”. I thought… OK… now he’s going to tell me how or for what he is to get wealthy. Is this just for the sake of being wealthy? What does he want to buy or give when he’s wealthy that he doesn’t already have or have given, besides a private jet timeshare? He tells me nothing… other than to cross some imaginary “class” line, which he has done and fails to recognize. Much of what he has, he cannot purchase with money even though he has it and the reverse is true as well as he is able to provide for his mom, who I love too. (besos los dos) To be getting married… (besos los tres) no date yet… no wedding planner. He gets to see me and/or my son Jason at least once or twice a week… sometimes for half the day. That alone should make him think to himself… I’m the wealthiest man in the world. But he doesn’t. I love him anyway… and I make sure I tell him.

WHAT IF you are on the right path? What if the path you’re on is already headed in the right direction? What if you don’t want to change a thing or your direction? What if 2013 (all things considered) was the best year of your life?

WHAT IF, when looking back at 2013 I think of nothing but good things, good experiences a personally fulfilling year on the grandest of scales, with the exception being a pulmonary embolism, but there was even good in that since I am breathing better than I have in years.

WHAT IF I realized I was truly happy for the first time in my life in 2013 and I still am. What if I felt loved for the first time in my life in 2013 and still do. What if I started learning how to both accept and share love, nurturing and affection for the first time in my life in 2013. 🙂 I have a Mom for the first time in my life and I got her in 2013 when she chose me for adoption with five simple words that instantly healed a very lunch chunk of me. I have an entire family and I got them on June 11, 2013 with my mom when the judge stamped and signed the adoption decree. My family gives me more in a day than I thought I would ever receive in a lifetime. Even if nobody says a word. It’s almost overwhelming, but I’m just going with the flow that started in 2013 and it’s still going. Thank you mom. I love you.

So, here’s the thing. I don’t need no stinkin’ New Year’s Resolution. Things will be just fine without one.

My son sent me an image with some text asking me to write it down because he was on his iPhone… huh? He never told me what to do with it so I’ve been sitting on it since New Year’s Eve. I don’t think it was for me… it was probably for his love interest, but most of it works for me… Thank you Jason. I love you, my son.

“Remember, say a kind word to someone who looks up to you in awe, because that little person soon will grow up and leave your side. 

Remember, to give a warm hug to the one next to you, because that is the only treasure you can give with your heart and it doesn’t cost a cent.

Remember, to say, ‘I love you’ to your partner and your loved ones, but most of all mean it. A kiss and an embrace will mend hurt when it comes from deep inside of you. 

Remember to hold hands and cherish the moment for someday that person will not be there again.

Give time to love, give time to speak! And give time to share the precious thoughts in your mind.

And always remember, life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by those moments that take our breath away.” [George Carlin}

The year 2013 really made life worth living for me because of the people that are in my life every day. I love every single last one of you. You help give my life meaning. You give me a reason to live. And it’s good to be alive. Don’t need a New Year’s resolution for that and my life is not a review.

References: [Me, My Mom, My Son, Mr. Carverhall, Richard Wiseman, Frank Ra, George Carlin, Wall Street Journal]

 

 

Quote of the Day 2 January 2014 – Serotonin

English: This is a photograph I personally too...

English: This is a photograph I personally took when Wayne Dyer came by my television station (KUSI-TV in San Diego) in March 2009. This is NOT a screen shot. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“The positive effect of kindness on the immune system and on the increased production of serotonin in the brain has been proved on research studies. Serotonin is a naturally occurring substance in the body that makes us feel more comfortable, peaceful, and even blissful. In fact the role of most anti-depressants is to stimulate the serotonin production to alleviate depression. Research has shown that a simple act of kindness directed toward another improves the functioning of the immune system and stimulates production of serotonin in both the recipient of the kindness and the person extending the kindness. Even more amazing is that persons observing the act of kindness have similar beneficial results. Imagine this: kindness extended, received, or observed beneficially impacts the physical health and feelings of everyone involved.”
? Wayne Dyer

Quote of the Day 27 December 2013 – Happiness (again)

Liz Lemon Happy

Liz Lemon Happy (Photo credits: Giphy)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“If I am to believe everything that I see in the media, happiness is to be six foot tall or more and to have bleached teeth and a firm abdomen, all the latest clothes, accessories, and electronics, a picture-perfect partner of the opposite sex who is both a great lover and a terrific friend, an assortment of healthy and happy children, a pet that is neither a stray nor a mongrel, a large house in the right sort of postcode, a second property in an idyllic holiday location, a top-of-the-range car to shuttle back and forth from the one to the other, a clique of ‘friends’ with whom to have fabulous dinner parties, three or four foreign holidays a year, and a high-impact job that does not distract from any of the above. There are at least three major problems that I can see with this ideal of happiness. (1) It represents a state of affairs that is impossible to attain to and that is in itself an important source of unhappiness. (2) It is situated in an idealised and hypothetical future rather than in an imperfect but actual present in which true happiness is much more likely to be found, albeit with great difficulty. (3) It has largely been defined by commercial interests that have absolutely nothing to do with true happiness, which has far more to do with the practice of reason and the peace of mind that this eventually brings. In short, it is not only that the bar for happiness is set too high, but also that it is set in the wrong place, and that it is, in fact, the wrong bar. Jump and you’ll only break your back.”
Neel BurtonThe Art of Failure: The Anti Self-Help Guide

Quote of the Day 21 December 2013 – Relationships

Cover of "The Happiness Hypothesis: Findi...

Cover via Amazon

“Happiness is not something that you can find, acquire, or achieve directly. You have to get the conditions right and then wait. Some of those conditions are within you, such as coherence among the parts and levels of your personality. Other conditions require relationships to things beyond you: Just as plants need sun, water, and good soil to thrive, people need love, work, and a connection to something larger. It is worth striving to get the right relationships between yourself and others, between yourself and your work, and between yourself and something larger thank yourself. If you get these relationships right, a sense of purpose and meaning will emerge.”
Jonathan HaidtThe Happiness Hypothesis: Finding Modern Truth in Ancient Wisdom